Historical Overview

The Lordship of Ireland was a period of feudal rule in Ireland between 1177 and 1541 under the King of England, styled as Lord of Ireland. The lordship was created as a Papal possession following the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169–71. As the Lord of Ireland was also King of England, he was represented locally by the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.

Historians refer to a Gaelic revival or resurgence between 1350 and 1500, by which time the area ruled for the Crown — "the Pale" — had shrunk to a small area around Dublin. Between 1500 and 1541 a mixed situation arose. Most clans remained loyal to the Lord most of the time, using a Gaelic-style system of alliances centred around the Lord Deputy who was usually the current Earl of Kildare. However a rebellion by the 9th Earl's heir Silken Thomas in 1535 led on to a less sympathetic system of rule by mainly English-born administrators. The rebellion and Henry VIII's seizure of the Irish monasteries around 1540 led on to his plan to create a new kingdom based on the existing parliament with the aim of restoring such central authority as had been lost throughout the country during the previous two hundred years.

The resulting Tudor conquest (or reconquest) of Ireland took place under the Tudor dynasty, which held the Kingdom of England during the 16th century. By conciliation and repression the conquest continued for sixty years, but after the king's death, successive lord deputies of Ireland found that actually establishing the rule of the central government was far more difficult than merely securing the lords' pledges of allegiance. Successive rebellions broke out, the first in Leinster in the 1550s, when the O’Moore and O’Connor clans were displaced to make way for the Plantation of Queen's County and King's County (named for Mary I of England and Philip II of Spain; modern counties Laois and Offaly).

In the 1560s, English attempts to interfere in a succession dispute within the O’Neill sept, or clan, sparked a long war between Lord Deputy Sussex, and Shane O'Neill. Irish lordships continued to fight private wars against each other, ignoring the government in Dublin and its laws. Two examples of this are the Battle of Affane in 1565, fought between the Ormonde and Desmond dynasties, and the Battle of Farsetmore in 1567, fought between the O'Donnells and O'Neills. Elsewhere, clans such as the O’Byrnes and O’Tooles, continued raiding the Pale as they had always done. The most serious violence of all occurred in Munster in the 1560s ‘70s and ‘80s, when the Fitzgeralds of Desmond launched the Desmond Rebellions to prevent direct English influence into their territory. After a particularly brutal campaign in which up to a third of the population of the province was reported to have died, the rebellion was finally ended when the Earl of Desmond was killed in 1583.

Under Queens Mary I and Elizabeth, the English in Ireland tried a number of solutions to pacify the country. The first such initiative used martial government, whereby violent areas such as the Wicklow Mountains were garrisoned by small numbers of English troops under commanders called seneschals. The failure of this policy prompted the English to come up with more long-term solutions to pacify and Anglicise Ireland. One was composition, where private armed forces were abolished, and provinces were occupied by English troops under the command of governors, titled Lords President.

The second long-term solution was Plantations, in which areas of the country were to be settled with people from England, who would bring in English language and culture while remaining loyal to the crown. Naturally, the prospect of land confiscation further alienated the Irish. But the alienation wasn't confined to the Gaelic Irish: those who claimed descent from the original conquerors under Henry II were increasingly referred to as the "Old English", to distinguish them from the many administrators, captains and planters (the New English) who were arriving in Ireland. And it was mostly amongst this Old English community that fervent commitment to Catholicism was gaining ground.

As the 16th century progressed, the religious question grew in significance. Rebels such as James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald and Hugh O'Neill sought and received help from Catholic powers in Europe, justifying their actions on religious grounds. However, the Pale community and many Irish lords did not consider them to be genuinely religiously motivated. In the new century, the country would become polarised between Catholics and Protestants, especially after the planting of a large population of English into Ireland and Scots Presbyterians in Ulster

Under James I, Catholics were barred from all public office after the gunpowder plot was discovered in 1605; the Gaelic Irish and Old English increasingly defined themselves as Catholic in opposition to the Protestant New English. However the native Irish (both Gaelic and Old English) remained the majority landowners in the country until after the Irish Rebellion of 1641. By the end of the resulting Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in the 1650s, the "New English" Protestants dominated the country, and after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 their descendants went on to form the Protestant Ascendancy.


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Name and Date
Dave Parrish, 2nd at Roll Call 2012
  • 1 Kerns Warriors Unarmoured Average Lt Spear 6
  • 2 Kerns Warriors Unarmoured Average Lt Spear 6
  • 3 Kerns Warriors Unarmoured Average Lt Spear 6
  • 4 Light horse LH Unarmoured Average Javelin Lt Lance Sword 4
  • 5 Light foot javelin LF Unarmoured Average Javelin 6
  • 6 Light foot bow LF Unarmoured Average Bow 6
  • 7 Light horse LH Unarmoured Average Javelin Lt Lance Sword 6
  • 8 Galloglaich HF Armoured Superior Hvy W Hvy W 6
  • 9 Galloglaich HF Armoured Superior Hvy W Hvy W 8
  • 10 Galloglaich HF Armoured Superior Hvy W Hvy W 8
  • 11 Galloglaich HF Armoured Superior Hvy W Hvy W 8
  • 12 Galloglaich HF Armoured Superior Hvy W Hvy W 8
  • 13 Redshanks Warriors Unarmoured Average Bow'* Impact Ft. Sword 6
  • 14 Redshanks Warriors Unarmoured Average Bow'* Impact Ft. Sword 8
GC + 2 x TC



Created by admin. Last Modification: Thursday June 6, 2013 21:00:21 BST by admin. (Version 7)

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